Category Archives: General

Internet service provider (ISP)

what is Internet service provider (ISP)

A corporation that provides Internet connections and services to individuals and companies better known as an Internet service provider (ISP). ISPs may also give software packages (such as browsers), e-mail accounts, and a personal Web site or home page in addition to Internet connectivity. ISPs used by businesses to host their websites and to construct their own. Network access points, which are public network infrastructure on the Internet backbone, connect all ISPs.

The fast commercialization of the Internet had aided by the growth of commercial Internet services and apps. Several other reasons also contributed to this phenomenon. Several other reasons also contributed to this phenomenon. The debut of the personal computer (PC) and workstation in the early 1980s was a key contributor, a development that in turn were fuelled by remarkable progress in integrated circuit technology and an attendant rapid drop in computer prices.

By the late 1990s, the world’s Internet service providers numbered around 10,000, with more than half of them based in the United States. Most of these ISPs, on the other hand, only provided local service and relied on regional and national ISPs for larger connectivity. Many small to medium-sized providers merged or had acquired by larger ISPs at the end of the decade, resulting in consolidation.

America Online – formed as a dial-up information service with no Internet connectivity in the late 1990s and grew to become the world’s leading provider of Internet services with over 25 million subscribers and branches in Australia, Europe, South America, and Asia were among these larger providers. Meanwhile, in large national markets like China, India, and Indonesia, and other latest state-owned ISPs flooded the market, quickly outnumbering any traditional commercial ISP. Dial-up Customers who wanted faster Internet connections continued to switch to broadband service. In some parts of the United States, telephone and cable television companies’ entry-level broadband services are cheaper than dial-up. AOL’s dial-up Internet service subscribers fell from nearly 27 million in 2002 to 17.7 million in 2006, then 2.1 million in 2015.

To reposition itself, AOL abandoned its attempt to be the most popular dial-up service provider in favour of attempting to become an independent advertising-supported Internet portal comparable to Yahoo and Google. Customers could pay for AOL’s dial-up Internet access or pay for Internet access from another provider while still having free access to many AOL features. ISPs are opposed to net neutrality, while a group of Internet content and software providers are in favour. It is, without a doubt, the assistance of the law in resolving the conflict.

2021 REVIEW

The main incidents happened in 2021

The resurrection of hope in the world’s oldest democracy and its departure in one of the world’s most devastated countries were among the year’s most important events. The COVID-19 epidemic has affected the whole world and settled everything upside down. These were the tales that not only had a local influence but will also leave a footprint on future developments, ranging from politics, science, and space technology to natural disasters and coups. This article helps you understand some of the milestones that have been the particles of essential change.

The European Parliament votes on the Trade and Cooperation Agreement, the final stage of Brexit.

Brexit has already occurred (on January 31, 2020). So far, it hasn’t been obvious because the transition period ended in 2020, and the UK continued to enjoy the benefits of membership even though it was no longer a member of the EU. 

  • 100th anniversary of the Chinese Communist Party

The Chinese Communist Party (CCP) will commemorate the 100th anniversary of its formation in 1921 by highlighting its accomplishments. In terms of economics, the CCP has unquestionably succeeded in changing China from a small, impoverished country to the world’s largest economy.

  • COVID-19 vaccines available

 Adults in all 50 states were eligible to receive a Pfizer, Moderna, or Johnson & Johnson immunization by May 1, a year and a half after the COVID-19 pandemic began. Pfizer and Moderna both use innovative mRNA technology to develop their vaccines, but Johnson & Johnson relies on more traditional, pre-existing information-delivery technology.

  • The billionaire space race

This year, Elon Musk, Jeff Bezos, and Richard Branson all competed for attention in the area of private space travel and Astro-tourism. Depending on who you ask, Branson became the first citizen to reach space onboard his rocket ship on July 11th. According to NASA, the US military, and the Federal Aviation Administration, Branson flew 53 miles above land, three miles beyond the edge of space.

  • America retreats from Afghanistan

The United States evacuated the last of its troops from Afghanistan on Aug. 31, completing an agreement struck by the Trump administration to end the 20-year conflict. While the majority of Americans (54 percent) believe that leaving the country was the right decision, 40% say that it was handled poorly. Before American soldiers had finished their retreat, the Taliban reclaimed control of Afghanistan in just under ten days, taking Kabul on August 15. President Joe Biden stood firm in his support for the choice and the operation.

  • The Taliban have reclaimed power

The resurrection of hope in the world’s oldest democracy and its departure in one of the world’s most devastated countries were among the year’s most important events. The COVID-19 epidemic has affected the whole world and settled everything upside down. These were the tales that not only had a local influence but will also leave a footprint on future developments, ranging from politics, science, and space technology to natural disasters and coups. This article helps you understand some of the milestones that have been the particles of essential change.

The United States’ war in Afghanistan ended in the same way it began twenty years ago: with the Taliban in control. President Donald Trump reached an agreement with the Taliban in 2020, requiring the withdrawal of all US troops by May 1, 2021. President Joe Biden issued an executive order two weeks before the deadline, mandating that the United States complete its withdrawal by September 11, 2021, the twentieth anniversary of the 9/11 attacks. The Afghan national army crumbled as the retreat progressed, and the Taliban took control of the country. On August 15, Kabul fell, trapping thousands of foreigners in the capital.

Travelling Situation

COVID-19 puts people in high-risk groups at risk of severe illness and death, including those over 60, those with chronic fever, and those with underlying health conditions. Keep an eye on the COVID-19 situation where you are going, and follow any border entry requirements, which may include testing or quarantine. You may be at higher risk of COVID-19 infection if you live in an area with high COVID-19 transmission rates. As you plan, it is critical to be aware of your health status as well as the risks of COVID-19 at your destination.

Doing traveling during the Coronavirus outbreak is unfortunately not entirely safe or risk-free, regardless of your age, health, or the country you are visiting. The Indian government has issued the most recent advisory guidance for international travel to India, which requires all visitors may instructed to quarantine at home for seven days, and RT-PCR test on their eighth day in India is mandatory. If travellers under home quarantine or self-health monitoring develop Covid-19 symptoms or re-test positive for Covid-19, they must self-isolate and report to their nearest health facility or call the country’s national helpline number or their state helpline number.

Before their scheduled travel, all passengers must submit complete and accurate information in a self-declaration form on the online Air Suvidha portal, including the last 14 days of travel, and upload a negative Covid-19 RT-PCR report for a test taken within 72 hours before departure. According to the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, airlines will only allow passengers to board who have completed the self-declaration form on the Air Suvidha portal and uploaded a negative RT-PCR test report.

Thermal screening happens upon your arrival, and passengers who show symptomatic during screening would be isolated and taken to a medical facility. If any of them are positive, their contacts will be identified and managed according to protocol. Travelers can visit India from any other country that is involved in the transportation bubble agreement with India. Afghanistan, Australia, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Ethiopia, Finland, France, Germany, Iraq, Japan, Kenya, Kuwait, Mauritius, Nepal, Netherlands, Nigeria, Oman, Qatar, Russia, Rwanda, Seychelles, Sri Lanka, Switzerland, Tanzania, Ukraine, United Arab Emirates, and Uzbekistan are among the countries with air bubble agreements with India.

Pre-arrival and post-arrival testing is not necessary for children under the age of five. They will be tested and treated if they have found to be symptomatic for COVID-19 upon arrival or during the home quarantine period. In its most recent guidelines, the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare clarified that the new guidelines supersede all previous guidelines on the subject issued on or after November 30, 2021.

Travelling Situation

COVID-19 puts people in high-risk groups at risk of severe illness and death, including those over 60, those with chronic fever, and those with underlying health conditions. Keep an eye on the COVID-19 situation where you are going, and follow any border entry requirements, which may include testing or quarantine. You may be at higher risk of COVID-19 infection if you live in an area with high COVID-19 transmission rates. As you plan, it is critical to be aware of your health status as well as the risks of COVID-19 at your destination.

Doing traveling during the Coronavirus outbreak is unfortunately not entirely safe or risk-free, regardless of your age, health, or the country you are visiting. The Indian government has issued the most recent advisory guidance for international travel to India, which requires all visitors may instructed to quarantine at home for seven days, and RT-PCR test on their eighth day in India is mandatory. If travellers under home quarantine or self-health monitoring develop Covid-19 symptoms or re-test positive for Covid-19, they must self-isolate and report to their nearest health facility or call the country’s national helpline number or their state helpline number.

Before their scheduled travel, all passengers must submit complete and accurate information in a self-declaration form on the online Air Suvidha portal, including the last 14 days of travel, and upload a negative Covid-19 RT-PCR report for a test taken within 72 hours before departure. According to the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, airlines will only allow passengers to board who have completed the self-declaration form on the Air Suvidha portal and uploaded a negative RT-PCR test report.

Thermal screening happens upon your arrival, and passengers who show symptomatic during screening would be isolated and taken to a medical facility. If any of them are positive, their contacts will be identified and managed according to protocol. Travelers can visit India from any other country that is involved in the transportation bubble agreement with India. Afghanistan, Australia, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Ethiopia, Finland, France, Germany, Iraq, Japan, Kenya, Kuwait, Mauritius, Nepal, Netherlands, Nigeria, Oman, Qatar, Russia, Rwanda, Seychelles, Sri Lanka, Switzerland, Tanzania, Ukraine, United Arab Emirates, and Uzbekistan are among the countries with air bubble agreements with India.

Pre-arrival and post-arrival testing is not necessary for children under the age of five. They will be tested and treated if they have found to be symptomatic for COVID-19 upon arrival or during the home quarantine period. In its most recent guidelines, the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare clarified that the new guidelines supersede all previous guidelines on the subject issued on or after November 30, 2021.

Environmental and Health Impacts

Environmental and Health Impacts of Air Pollution

Multiple human activities influence the environment, so the interactions between humans and their physical surroundings have studied deeply. The biotic (living organisms and microorganisms) and abiotic (inanimate objects) worlds collide in the environment (hydrosphere, lithosphere, and atmosphere). Pollution – the introduction of substances that are harmful to humans and other living organisms into the environment. Pollutants are harmful solids, liquids, or gases that have produced in higher-than-normal concentrations and degrade our environment’s quality.

Human activities pollute the water we drink, the air we breathe, and the soil in which plants grow, all of which harm the environment. Although the industrial revolution was a huge success in terms of technology, society, and the provision of a wide range of services, it also resulted in the release of massive amounts of pollutants into the air that are hazardous to human health.

Without a doubt, global environmental pollution considers as a multifaceted international public health issue. This major issue has linked to social, economic, and legislative concerns, as well as lifestyle habits. Clearly, in our era, urbanisation and industrialization are reaching unprecedented and upsetting levels around the world.

Anthropogenic air pollution is one of the world’s most serious public health threats, causing approximately 9 million deaths each year. Without a doubt, the entire aforementioned have linked to climate change, and the consequences for humankind could be dire if the situation worsens. Climate change and the effects of global planetary warming have a significant impact on multiple ecosystems, resulting in issues such as food safety, ice and iceberg melting, animal extinction, and plant damage. Air pollution has a variety of negative health consequences. Even on days when air pollution is low, vulnerable and sensitive people’s health possibly harmed.

COPD (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease), cough, shortness of breath, wheezing, asthma, respiratory disease, and high hospitalisation rates are all linked to short-term exposure to air pollutants (a measurement of morbidity). In conclusion, a global prevention policy needed to develop to combat anthropogenic air pollution as a complement to the proper management of air pollution’s adverse health effects. To display the problem more effectively, sustainable development practises need fully used in conjunction with research findings.

For effective pollution control, international cooperation in terms of research, development, administration policy, monitoring, and politics is critical at this time. Air pollution legislation needs to be updated and aligned, and policymakers should propose the creation of a powerful tool for environmental and health protection. As a result, the central argument of this essay is that we should concentrate on fostering local structures to promote experience and practise, and then extrapolate these to the international level through the development of effective policies for ecosystem management.

Only public awareness combined with a multidisciplinary approach by scientific experts will be able to address this problem; national and international organisations must address the emergence of this threat and propose long-term solutions.

Climate Change

Unusual Climate Change in India ; Does That Ring any Bells ?

India, one of the world’s most disaster-prone countries, has suffered severe economic and human losses. Weather disasters affect more than 80% of the country’s land and more than 50 million people. Disaster mitigation necessitates accurate future forecasting, which entails specialized climate change research. The summer monsoon, India’s main lifeline expects to change dramatically due to climate change. The length of the rainy season will shorten, and pre-monsoon drying may occur. Future changes may influence the spread of vector-borne diseases like malaria, dengue fever, and others.

Another recent study by 29 international experts from various institutions discovered that India has the chance of disasters such as tropical cyclones (TCs), river floods, droughts, and heatwaves. We propose a three-stage cumulative method for improved and skilled prediction, with K standing for observational analysis, U for knowledge and understanding, and M for modelling and prediction. 

Unpredictable weather presents challenges. Weather patterns will have serious consequences not only for the country’s economy, but also for farmers who rely on timely rains during the summer monsoon season to cultivate their main crop. Weather forecasting will become the more-difficult cause of this unpredictability. 

According to meteorologists, Monsoon 2021 was a season of extremes, with long dry spells and excessive rainfall. The official data show that rains were plentiful this year in areas that typically receive deficit rainfall, such as western Madhya Pradesh, eastern Rajasthan, and Maharashtra’s Marathwada and Vidarbha regions. The country’s rainiest regions, such as Odisha, Kerala, and the northeast, on the other hand, struggled to meet their average rainfall quota.

The IPCC report also concludes that, despite the lowest emissions scenarios, global mean sea levels will continue to rise in the twenty-first century due to ocean warming and ice sheet and glacier melting. This will pose a significant threat to those living in areas vulnerable to the effects of sea-level rise in India, which has a coastline of over 7,500 kilometres. For example, if sea levels rise by 50 centimetres, 28.6 million people in six Indian port cities – Chennai, Kochi, Kolkata, Mumbai, Surat, and Visakhapatnam – will be exposed to coastal flooding, and the assets at risk will be worth $4 trillion.

Following the publication of the report, there will be a call for countries all over the world, including India, to set more ambitious climate change goals. India has yet to announce its goal of achieving net-zero emissions. India’s current emissions, both cumulative and per capita, are significantly lower than its fair share of the global carbon budget, according to the ministry. Among the measures taken by the government to combat climate change, it highlighted the installation of 450 gigawatts of renewable energy by 2030.

Government Agenda 2022: UP Elections

The year 2022 will usher in a slew of new beginnings in Uttar Pradesh, beginning with the sound of the poll bugle. The assembly elections in the first two months of this year will determine whether the political equations in Uttar Pradesh will change or remain the same. The results of the Uttar Pradesh assembly elections will usher in a new era in the state’s and political parties’ power dynamics. The destiny of current Chief Minister Yogi Adityanath will be decided by the results of assembly elections in 2022.

A victory like the one he had in 2017 would strengthen him, whereas a narrow victory or a disaster would weaken his claim to be the next prime ministerial candidate. A loss in the assembly elections would also be costly to the leaders of the Samajwadi and Bahujan Samaj Parties, as both have been fighting for survival. Things won’t be easy for Priyanka Gandhi, the UP Congress’s in-charge, if her party fails to make an impression in the assembly elections.

Priyanka needs a better result in UP to strengthen her position within the Congress party at the national level. However, the outcome of the UP election will determine whether BSP supremo Mayawati has a role in UP politics or not. A victory in 2022 could cement Akhilesh Yadav’s position as the undisputed leader of regional forces in north India, while defeat would pose a serious challenge to his leadership within the party.

Aside from politics, a slew of other factors could make 2022 a pivotal year in the coming years. From the first phase of the Ram Mandir in Ayodhya to a potential fight for Krishna Janmabhoomi in Mathura, UP will be setting the agenda for the ruling BJP in the general elections of 2024. Following the completion of the Ram temple in Ayodhya and the opening of the Kashi-Vishwanath corridor, UP Chief Minister Yogi has stated that a similar makeover for Mathura is planned for 2022.

On the development front in UP, new expressways may be added to the state’s network. The Bundelkhand Expressway is expected to open in June 2022, and the Gorakhpur Linkway will be finished the same year. In the year 2022, Agra could become the sixth city in Uttar Pradesh to have a metro system. The Gorakhpur metro is expected to start construction this year. The year will also see the introduction of a ropeway service in Varanasi, which will help to alleviate traffic congestion.

Gatekeeper in Media

what is Gatekeeper in media field ?

In today’s media environment, the role of a gatekeeper within journalism is critical. Gatekeepers ultimately construct and conduct what has published to the public, thereby determining what will become the public’s social reality and worldview. In recent years, the distinction between determining who the media’s audiences are and who the journalists are in today’s society has increasingly muddied. Because of the wide range of accessibility provided by social media, the distinctions between public opinion and journalistic news have blurred.

With today’s fast-paced and competitive media environment, these social media channels have seen a significant rise, creating outlets where anyone can be a journalist. So, why do we require gatekeeper journalists any longer? The public requires trustworthy, intelligent, and relevant news sources, prompting a push to de-regulate clickbait and fake news in the media.

Because of the high consumption rates of clickbait, fake news, and non-journalistic social media pages, gatekeeping journalists are in need. This is because professional journalists must assert control over news production, and audiences must have access to a regulated system for educational and topical news. It all boils down to the public’s desire for trustworthiness. The audience wants to know that what they are reading is accurate and honest, and because a journalist’s traditional role is to serve the public and uphold ethical standards, gatekeeping is still important in today’s diverse media environment.

The problem with journalism’s credibility and professionalism is that the majority of journalists must be able to uphold these standards in order to distinguish themselves from the overcrowded fake news and clickbait articles that dominate our media environment.

Audiences have grown accustomed to the fast-paced and competitive nature of breaking news, and they sometimes fail to recognize that what has published in the media is not always accurate and reliable. This can trap users in a social media environment, such as Facebook, where clickbait articles are currently available. If the audience is not well versed in the difference between fact and fiction, they will believe anything they hear in the public sphere.

More than ever before, it is critical to provide gatekeeping journalists with a secure environment in which they are not reliant on audience feedback. Gatekeepers require a media environment that distinguishes the relationship between journalists and the public while providing newsworthy, in-depth, and honest reporting.

The main goal of this research was to establish a baseline for measuring and conceptualizing the gatekeeping influence of professional news organizations’ social media editors. We relied on aggregated engagement statistics cause the fact that data on individual user engagement with news items is generally not available due to privacy concerns. We can use time series analysis to see when news items spread quickly on social media, and if this possible to predicted by certain events, by tracking these statistics over time.

Farmers’ future in farming

Farmers’ protest was suspended after 378 days; ‘ghar wapasi’ from December 11. Through this, we understand how much respect the ruling government gave to these fellow farmers, some of them had died during the protest, even then, they did not step back nor cease their protest but their spirit sustains in their veins. In the history of India, the Modi-led government ruined the farmers living policy and had an attempt to curb their freedom. If things like this will happen again in the future, what would be the outcome of it?

India is mostly a farming country. Agriculture accounts for only 16 percent of GDP yet employ the most people. Officially, there are just a few hundred million farmers, but when you factor in family members who assist or occasionally farm, as well as wage employees, the total number of farmworkers is estimated to be closer to half a billion. India must transition from subsistence agriculture to more efficient, sustainable, and productive agriculture. Unfortunately, today’s agricultural policies ignore the interconnectedness of crop choices, input costs, and the supply chain, prolonging marginal farming. Furthermore, increasing food production is not the answer to creating jobs. There is adequate food, especially when calories have considered rather than micronutrients. 

Exports are possible, but they will require a lot of value addition, and it is unclear how much of it will help the farmer vs the processor or trader. Fundamentally, India must discover a means to employ hundreds of millions of people in industries other than agriculture. Agriculture has been driven by a variety of factors, some of which are theoretically noble (keeping food affordable), and others that are less so (vote bank politics). Support has ranged from subsidized or even free inputs like power, water, and fertilizer to administered prices (both farmers and end-users through ration stores or other schemes).

At some point, political will instructs to call current support mechanisms into question in order to assess their equality, efficiency, and macroeconomic impact. Perhaps present policies are the incorrect medications for the problems — we blame execution failures as the issue, but it could be a diagnosis issue. The issue is not just leaking per se, as a former Prime Minister famously diagnosed, but something far worse: a fundamentally dysfunctional system. Agriculture’s future is a critical issue for planners and all other stakeholders. The government and other organizations are attempting to address the key challenges of agriculture in India, such as small farmer holdings, primary and secondary processing, supply chain, the infrastructure supporting efficient resource use, and marketing, with the goal of reducing market intermediaries.

Work on cost-effective technologies that safeguard the environment and conserve our natural resources is required. Privatization, liberalization, and globalization changes had a faster impact on the inputs market. After 2003, agricultural marketing reforms changed the way agricultural outputs was sold by allowing private investment in developing markets, contract farming, and futures trading, among other things. These adjustments to marketing acts have resulted in some changes but at a lower rate. Along with this, India’s information technology revolution, new agricultural technologies, private investments, particularly in R&D, and government efforts to revitalize the cooperative movement to address the problems of smallholdings and small producers are all changing the face of agriculture in India.

Many agricultural firms started by highly educated young people demonstrate that they comprehend the enormous potential of investing money and effort in this industry. 

Over the next decade, the cumulative effects of technology will alter the face of agriculture. All of the limits in agriculture make productivity and returns complicated, but India’s agriculture sector still has many untapped potentials.

 Many individuals, big companies, start-ups, and entrepreneurial ventures are attracting a lot of investments in innovations, inventions, research and development, and other aspects of business due to favourable weather and soil conditions, high demand for food, untapped opportunities, and various fiscal incentives provided by the government for inputs, production infrastructure, availability of cheap credit facilities, and marketing and export promotion. All of the agriculture’s issues are being converted into opportunities, and this process is the future of agriculture.

Animal Cruelty

Animal cruelty defines as any deliberate and replicated behavior that drives physical or psychological misery in animals, including, but not limited to, causing unnecessary pain, suffering, or even death of an animal. Countless cats, dogs, and other animals suffer and die every day at the hands of those who are supposed to protect and care for them. Many animals face physical violence, emotional abuse, and life-threatening neglect daily. Their only hope is for someone to intervene before it’s too late.

Domestic violence has an intense link to animal abuse. Abusers frequently use victims’ dogs and cats as pawns to manipulate and control them. A companion animal may serve as a lone confidant for an abused woman or child in an abusive home, and an abuser can take advantage of the victim’s concern for his or her animal by abusing the animal. To prevent children and partners from reporting abuse or fleeing, abusers may threaten or abuse animals in front of them. An abuser sends the message that a human victim could be next by harming the animals.

Types of Animal Abuse

Intercourse between a human and a non-human is known as bestiality (animal). It refers to a human having sexual relations with an animal in a degrading manner. Animal rage cases are frequently in the news these days, and they are often horrific and disturbing.

  • Physical Domestic Abuse

This is a form of animal abuse in which the violence against the animals is completely deliberate. The goal is to inflict serious injury, excruciating pain, and mental trauma on the animal. Physical violence creates an environment in which animals feel oppressed, terrorised, and terrified.

  • Organized Animal Abuse

Animal fighting, such as dog fighting, bullfighting, and cockfighting, is a form of organised animal abuse that is mostly done for entertainment purposes. It’s a staged fight in which animals are trained to fight each other violently and aggressively. In the end, animals either die or suffer greatly.

  • Laboratory testing and Experimentation

Humans and animals are not the same things. Their bodies react to various products in drastically different ways, which can be very harmful and painful. Thousands of animals are subjected to ruthless product testing every year, with harmful drugs and chemicals dripped down their throats, rubbed into their skin, and even dropped into their eyes. They are in a lot of pain, agony, discomfort, and suffering as a result of this.

Laws enforced for Animal Abuse

Sections 428 and 429 of the Criminal Code provide that anyone who causes harm, injury, death, poisoning, or maiming to animals or cattle with the intent of harming, injuring, killing, poisoning, or maiming them will be punished with a fine or imprisonment of up to 5 years or both. Sexual intercourse between a man and an animal is a cognizable and non-bailable offence, according to Section 377. It’s what’s known as an atypical offence. Whoever engages in carnal intercourse with any man, woman, or animal in violation of the natural order will face a life sentence or a sentence of up to ten years in prison, as well as a fine.

Cruelty to animals is a sensitive and serious issue. Every living organism, whether humans or animals, experiences pain. The brutality perpetrated against innocent animals is rarely acknowledged, and few people feel compelled to speak out against animal cruelty.